A solution to log collection problems of Kubernetes clusters by using log-pilot, Elasticsearch, and Kibana

Requirements for logs of distributed Kubernetes clusters always bother developers. This is mainly because of the characteristics of containers and the defects of log collection tools.

  • Characteristics of containers:
  • Many collection targets: The characteristics of containers cause the number of collection targets is large, which requires to collect the container logs and container stdout. Currently, no good tool can collect file logs from containers dynamically. Different data sources have different collection softwares. However, no one-stop collection tool exists.
  • Difficulty caused by auto scaling: Kubernetes clusters are in the distributed mode. The auto scaling of services and the environment brings great difficulty to log collection. You cannot configure the log collection path in advance, the same as what you do in the traditional virtual machine (VM) environment. The dynamic collection and data integrity are great challenges.
  • Defects of current log collection tools:
  • Lack the capability to dynamically configure log collection: The current log collection tools require you to manually configure the log collection method and path in advance. These tools cannot dynamically configure the log collection because they cannot automatically detect the lifecycle changes or dynamic migration of containers.
  • Log collection problems such as logs are duplicate or lost: Some of the current log collection tools collect logs by using the tail method. Logs may be lost in this way. For example, the application is writing logs when the log collection tool is being restarted. Logs written during this period may be lost. Generally, the conservative solution is to collect logs of 1 MB or 2 MB previous to the current log by default. However, this may cause the duplicate log collection.
  • Log sources without clear marks: An application may have multiple containers that output the same application logs. After all the application logs are collected to a unified log storage backend, you cannot know a log is generated on which application container of which node when querying logs.

This document introduces log-pilot, a tool to collect Docker logs, and uses the tool together with Elasticsearch and Kibana to provide a one-stop solution to log collection problems in the Kubernetes environment.

Introduction on log-pilot

Log-pilot is an intelligent tool used to collect container logs, which not only collects container logs and outputs these logs to multiple types of log storage backends efficiently and conveniently, but also dynamically defects and collects log files from containers.

Log-pilot uses declarative configuration to manage container events strongly and obtain the stdout and file logs of containers, which solves the problem of auto scaling. Besides, log-pilot has the functions of automatic discovery, maintenance of checkpoint and handle, and automatic tagging for log data, which effectively deals with the problems such as dynamic configuration, duplicate logs, lost logs, and log source marking.

Currently, log-pilot is completely open-source in GitHub. The project address is https://github.com/AliyunContainerService/log-pilot. You can know more implementation principles about it.

Declarative configuration to container logs

Log-pilot supports managing container events, can dynamically listen to the event changes of containers, parse the changes according to the container labels, generate the configuration file of log collection, and then provide the file to collection plug-in to collect logs.

For Kubernetes clusters, log-pilot can dynamically generate the configuration file of log collection according to the environment variable aliyun_logs_$name = $path.

Where:

  • $name is a custom string which indicates different meanings in different scenarios. In this scenario, $name indicates index when collecting logs to Elasticsearch.
  • $path supports two input modes, stdout and paths of log files within containers, which respectively correspond to the standout output of logs and log files within containers.
  • Stdout indicates to collect standard output logs from containers. In this example, to collect Tomcat container logs, configure the label xxxx.logs.catalina=stdout to collect standard output logs of Tomcat.
  • The path of a log file within a container also supports wildcards. To collect logs within the Tomcat container, configure the environment variable aliyun_logs_access=/usr/local/tomcat/logs/*.log. To not use the keyword, you can use the environment variable PILOT_LOG_PREFIX, which is also provided by log-pilot, to specify the prefix of your declarative log configuration. For example, PILOT_LOG_PREFIX: "xxxx,custom".

Besides, log-pilot supports multiple log parsing formats, including none, JSON, CSV, Nginx, apache2, and regxp. You can use the xxx_logs_$name.format=<format> label to tell log-pilot to use what format to parse logs when collecting logs.

Log-pilot also supports custom tags. If you configure xxxx_logs_$name.tags="K1=V1,K2=V2" in the environment variable, K1=V1 and K2=V2 are collected to log output of the container during the log collection. Custom tags help you tag the log generation environment for convenient statistics, routing, and filter of logs.

Log collection mode

To test it, deploy a log-pilot on each machine and collect all the Docker application logs from the machines.

Compared with deploying a logging container on each pod, the most obvious advantage of this solution is less occupied resources. The larger the cluster scale is, the more obvious the advantage is. This solution is also recommended in the community.

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